Frequently Asked Questions
INNQUETE ENGINEERING SOLUTION
What is a drone and what are the basic principles of drone in different field?
A drone is an un-piloted aircraft which has various basic application mentioned below :
Drone is an unmanned aerial vehicle which are capable of flying with the help of a remote-control system (RCS) or by the help of computer-based system.
Drone have applications in various field like weather forecasting , surveying of land topography, contour and elevation mapping , surveillance and reconnaissance for military purpose and also used for delivery of commodities by various companies, drone monitoring and aerial surveying of governmental projects (traffic management , road construction , irrigation channels , railway projects etc).
What are the categories of drones and their classification?
CATEGORISED IN ACCORDANCE WITH MAX. PAYLOAD
- NANO DRONES - Less than or equal to250 GRAM
- MICRO DRONES - Greater than 250 GRAM and less than or equal to 2 KG
- SMALL DRONE - Greater than 2 KG and less than or equal to 25 KG
- MEDIUM DRONE - Greater than 25 KG and less than or equal to 150 KG
- LARGE DRONE - Greater than 150 Kg
CLASSIFICATION OF DRONE
CLASSIFICATION ON BASIS OF PROPELLERS:
- SINGLE ROTOR DRONE
- TRI-COPTER DRONE
- QUAD-COPTER DRONE
- HEXA-COPTER DRONE
- OCTA-COPTER DRONE
- FIXED WING DRONE
CLASSIFICATION ON BASIS OF SIZE:
- NANO DRONES
- MICRO DRONES
- SMALL DRONE
- MEDIUM DRONE
- LARGE DRONE
CLASSIFICATION ON BASIS OF RANGE AND TIME OF FLIGHT:
- VERY CLOSE RANGED DRONE - RANGE: 5KM - TIME OF FLIGHT: 25-40 MIN.
- CLOSE RANGE BATTERY DRONE - RANGE: 50 KM - TIME OF FLIGHT: 1-6 HRS.
- SHORT RANGED DRONE - RANGE: 150 KM - TIME OF FLIGHT: 8-12 HRS.
- MID-RANGE DRONE - RANGE: 650 KM - TIME OF FLIGHT: >12 HRS.
- ENDURANCE - RANGE: 200 KM - TIME OF FLIGHT: 36 HRS.
CLASSIFICATION ON BASIS OF EQUIPMENT:
- DRONES WITH CAMERA - INFRARED CAMERA, THERMAL CAMERA, NIGHT VISION CAMERA
- DRONES WITH FPV - RADIO TRANSMITTER AND RECIEVER, FPV ANTENNA, FPV GOGGLE AND MONITOR, VIDEO TRANSMITTER AND RECIEVER
- DRONE WITH GPS - GLONASS & NAVSTAR
- DRONE WITH STABALIZER - GIMBAL (DEVICE USED TO STABALISE CAMERA AXIS)
What are the processed end results of the data captured by drone after processing it on the software?
DIFFERENT TYPE OF RESULTS AFTER DATA PROCESSING:
- 1. GENERATION OF ORTHOMOSIAC
- 2. CONTOUR AND ELEVATION PLANNING
- 3. GENERATING OF 3-D MODELLING
- 4. HOTSPOT AND THERMAL DETECTION
- 5. VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS
- 6. PROJECT MONITORING AND PLASNNING
What are the rules and operating restriction of flying drones in INDIA?
Important rules for flying a drone in India:
All drones except those in the Nano category must be registered and issued a Unique Identification Number (UIN).
A permit is required for commercial drone operations (except for those in the Nano category flown below 50 feet and those in the Micro category flown below 200 feet).
Drone pilots must maintain a direct visual line of sight at all times while flying.
Drones cannot be flown more than 400 feet vertically.
Drones cannot be flown in areas specified as "No Fly Zones", which include areas near airports, international borders, Vijay Chowk in Delhi, State Secretariat Complex in State Capitals, strategic locations, and military installations.
Permission to fly in controlled airspace can be obtained by filing a flight plan and obtaining a unique Air Defense Clearance (ADC)/Flight Information Center (FIC) number.
Operating restriction for flying drone in India
Within a distance of 5 km from the perimeter of airports at Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata, Bengaluru and Hyderabad.
Within a distance of 3 km from the perimeter of any civil, private or defense airports.
Above the Obstacle Limitation Surfaces (OLS) or PANS-OPS surfaces, whichever is lower, of an operational aerodrome, specified in Ministry of Civil Aviation (Height Restrictions for Safeguarding of Aircraft Operations) Rules, 2015 notified through Gazette of India notification GSR751(E) as amended from time to time.
Within permanent or temporary Prohibited, Restricted and Danger Areas including TRA, and TSA, as notified in AIP.
Within 25km from international border which includes Line of Control (LoC), Line of Actual Control (LAC) and Actual Ground Position Line (AGPL).
Beyond 500 m (horizontal) into sea from coast line provided the location of ground station is on fixed platform over land.
Within 3 km from perimeter of military installations/ facilities/ where military activities/ exercises are being carried out unless clearance is obtained from the local military installation/facility; CIVIL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS SECTION 3 – AIR TRANSPORT SERIES X PART I 27TH AUGUST, 2018 12.
Within 5 km radius from Vijay Chowk in Delhi. However, this is subject to any additional conditions/ restrictions imposed by local law enforcement agencies/ authorities in view of the security.
Within 2 km from perimeter of strategic locations/ vital installations notified by Ministry of Home Affairs unless clearance is obtained from MHA.
Within 3 km from radius of State Secretariat Complex in State Capitals.
From a mobile platform such as a moving vehicle, ship or aircraft.
Over eco-sensitive zones around National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries notified by Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change without prior permission.
What are the risks involved in flying of drone and it’s effect?
Risk involved in drone flying are mentioned as below:
RISKS INVOLVED IN DAMAGE OF POWER TRANSMISSION LINE: when the drone is flying near to the power transmission line there is an interference caused in the flying of a drone which results in reducing the maneuverability and make it extremely difficult for the drone to fly over transmission lines and requires high-precision skills and experience and the more the distance between the power line and drone the more efficiently the drone can inspect the power transmission line.
DAMAGE TO FLIGHT CONTROLLER: If there is an inspection of a power transmission source then the drones should be ferro-magnetic coated in order to reduce the interference and minimizing the risk for any kind of damage to the drone flight controller.
In the event of violation of any provisions in CAR 1.0, the UIN/UAOP issued by the DGCA shall be suspended/cancelled by the DGCA. Since the UIN and UAOP are mandatory for operating drones suspension/cancellation.
It is also provided that breach of compliance of any of the requirements stated in this regulation and falsification of records/documents shall attract penalties under various sections of the Indian Penal Code (“IPC”) including section 287 (negligent conduct with respect to machinery), section 336 (act endangering life or personal safety of others), section 337 (causing hurt by endangering life or personal safety of others), section 338 (causing grievous hurt by act endangering life or personal safety of others) and any other relevant section of the IPC.
The Local Police Office shall have jurisdiction for enforcement of violations of provisions of the IPC. It is also provided that necessary actions may be taken as per the relevant sections of the Aircraft Act, 1934 / the Aircraft Rules 1937 or any statutory provisions.